Types of Editing

I offer the following editing services:

  • Developmental

  • Line

  • Copy

  • Proofreading

  • Manuscript reading

See below for detailed descriptions of each service.

Do you require multiple kinds of editing? I can do that. Authors often want developmental-, line- and copy-editing at the same time, for example, because they can more quickly publish their work.

Please be aware that:

  • If you first decide on one kind of editing but later decide you want others, the fee will change to cover the extra work;


  • I only edit completed drafts. If you are in the very early stages of writing and have not yet finished your first draft, I cannot edit your work. But depending on what you need, we could schedule a call to discuss any questions you have.


1.Developmental editing (also known as content editing): The main focus of developmental editing is structure. This means making sure the text has a strong foundation, flows well, and is clear and easy to read. I will provide suggestions on what needs to be removed, refined or added.

For fiction, this includes analysis of and feedback on plot, characterisation, overall emotional impact, and any other aspect of storytelling relevant to your manuscript.

There is some crossover with line editing in that I’ll highlight language issues that can be most easily corrected at this stage. They’re usually things like overused words, excessive adverbs, and sentences or paragraphs that require rewording. However, the main purpose is to make sure you have a solid, engaging and complete text. (See the end of this list for a note about adverbs.)


2. Line editing: This is usually for later drafts of a finished work, once developmental editing is complete. Line editing is about going through your text line by line and making it clear and easy to read. This includes copy-editing (see below), adjusting sentences to improve flow, removing repeated words, clarifying unclear sections, standardising phrasing and providing consistency, and any other changes necessary to ensure the reader remains immersed in your words.

I may provide some developmental feedback if it’s necessary, but the focus will be on editing the existing text, not making structural changes. If you have a style guide you’d like me to follow, please let me know before we start work.


3. Copy-editing: This usually applies to a final or near-final draft of a completed work. The structure of the text is complete and you need someone to check for errors. These include corrections of spelling, grammar and punctuation, as well as ensuring consistency and removing stray marks or spaces.

The focus of copy-editing is to remove errors. I may provide other feedback on improving the text, but only if it’s strictly necessary and we have the time.

If you have a style guide you’d like me to follow, please let me know before we start work.


4. Proofreading: This is usually the final stage of editing before a text is published or posted online. If you ask me to proofread something, it means it has already been edited by someone else. You only need a fresh pair of eyes to catch any remaining errors.

My focus will be correcting spelling, grammar and punctuation errors, alongside removing stray marks or spaces. I do not provide any other feedback unless I spot something that is particularly egregious.

If you have a style guide you’d like me to follow, please let me know before we start work.


5. Manuscript reading: If you have completed a first or second draft and need feedback before continuing, this is the service for you.

Manuscript reading is a single round of developmental editing without the copy-editing. You will receive feedback on plot, characterisation, flow, descriptions and other story-related aspects of your work. There will be very little commentary on technical errors, if any. Once you receive my feedback, you can continue with revising and updating your manuscript.

The project fee will be cheaper because you’re only paying for the first stage of developmental editing, not for the revision process. We will have one phone call (maximum of one hour) to discuss the feedback.


About adverbs: Adverbs are words that end in ‘-ly’ (e.g., angrily, sadly, happily). I am not anti-adverbs. Very far from it! My approach is to decide whether the adverbs enhance a scene or drag it down. If they’re overused, they can make a scene fall flat and deprive it of emotional depth. But when used judiciously, they can pack a lot of power. I therefore take a broader view of adverb use within the text.

* Voor mijn Nederlandse bezoekers: Ik spreek zowel Engels als Nederlands, dus u kunt voor vragen over schrijven en copywriting in beide talen bij mij terecht.